Sovereign Nation Era Ends 1800-1827
“Whiskey Treaty” of Fort Wayne signed
A process of fraud, embezzlement of lands, and use of alcohol is used to negotiate the Fort Wayne Treaty between territorial governors and unrecognized Native leaders, who are either self-appointed or U.S. government-appointed. For example, Potawatomi “chiefs” sign away lands belonging to Shawnee. Shawnee leader Tecumseh objects, telling future President William Henry Harrison and others that “11 debt-ridden, whiskey-soaked ’treaty chiefs’ do not have the authority to sign agreements for lands they do not own or have authority over” (Nies, 1996). The treaty takes three million acres from Native tribes. Tecumseh warns Americans not to settle on the land and organizes troops (Native Voices, "1809: Treaty of Fort Wayne takes 3 million acres from Native peoples").