Indian New Deal, Tribal Termination, and Urban Relocation 1934-1967
Termination becomes official policy
Congress begins a 13-year period of terminating Native tribes, through which tribes are disbanded and their lands sold. The largest tribes terminated are the Menominee Nation in Wisconsin and the Klamath in Oregon. In addition, over a hundred bands, communities, and rancherias in California are terminated or lose federal protections and services (Nies, 1996). “Nothing else that Congress can do causes tribal members to lose more of their rights than termination. Termination is the ultimate weapon of Congress and ultimate fear of tribes. Despite its drastic effect, the Supreme Court has held that Congress has the power under the Commerce Clause to terminate a tribe” (Pevar, 1992). The policy is officially outlawed by President Kennedy in 1962.