Indian Removal Era Begins 1828-1849


Removal resistance: Second Seminole War in Florida Everglades

The Second Seminole War, also known as the Florida War, consists of a series of armed resistance by the Seminoles to forced removal. It is regarded as “the longest and most costly of the Indian conflicts of the United States” (Lancaster, 1994). Seminoles refuse to accept the fraudulent Treaty of Payne’s Landing and refuse to relocate. Over 10,000 U.S. troops are deployed against the Seminole, to no avail. Osceola leads a party ambushing the U.S. agent who was working to gain Seminole compliance for the removal treaty of 1830, which instigates the Second Seminole War. Osceola is captured in 1837 and put in prison, where he dies. Billy Bowlegs takes over the Seminole resistance, leading 200 warriors to attack a government trading post and kill most of the American troops. The Seminoles retreat and hide in the Everglades, outmaneuvering U.S. troops (Missall & Missall, 2004).

Native Resistance