Indian Removal Era Begins 1828-1849
Johnson Massacre of Apaches (New Mexico)
The government offers 100 pesos (equivalent to one American dollar) for the scalps of Native peoples. Seizing this opportunity, James Johnson fires at close range a cannon loaded with musket balls, nails, and pieces of glass into a group of unarmed Apache women, children, and men who are trading with settlers. He then proceeds to kill and scalp all 20 of them. (https://newsmaven.io/indiancountrytoday/archive/scalping-in-america-AvU3W-1ae0W3AjR4BHCvEg) (“List of Indian massacres”).