Boarding School and Land Allotment Eras 1879-1933


Dissolution of tribal governments and communal land holdings

The Curtis Act of 1898, an amendment to the United States Dawes Act, results in the break-up of tribal governments and communal lands in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indian Territory: the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Muscogee (Creek), Cherokee, and Seminole. Passage of Curtis Act gives Whites license to ignore tribal laws, although tribal laws are still in force. White settlers evade permit taxes, fence lands illegally, and refuse to vacate lands claimed by Native allottees. In 1900, the Assistant Attorney General for Indian Territory reiterates that tribal laws are still in place and are to be enforced and that any violations of these laws would mean that the non-Native violators could be removed from the Indian Territory. No one pays attention, and the ruling has no effect.

Settler Colonial Policy

Traumatic Event