Boarding School and Land Allotment Eras 1879-1933
Committee of Safety: White planters and businessman illegally overthrow the Hawaiian monarchy
Haole businessmen plot with U.S. Minister to Hawai’i John L. Stevens to overthrow Queen Lili’uokalani, the Hawaiian monarch, and establish a new government with Sanford Dole as president. In January of 1883, the haole planters, with plantation owner Sanford Dole as their leader, organize a coup with their all-White regime, called the Committee of Safety, to seek immediate help from the U.S. and Minister Stevens, accusing the Queen of creating “alarm and terror.” Stevens agrees to land marines to establish this “provisional government.” Confronted by the U.S. military and the U.S.-backed provisional government, Queen Lili’uokalani is forced to cede her authority; she does so only to the U.S. and not to the provisional government headed by the Dole plantation owner. On February 1, 1893, Minister Stevens proclaims Hawai’i a U.S. protectorate and raises the U.S. flag. However, five days later, President Cleveland withdraws the pending annexation treaty from Congress. Commissioner Blount is sent to investigate and finds the U.S. and the Minister guilty of conspiracy to illegally overthrow the government ("Americans overthrow Hawaiian monarchy," 2019).